This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $2,500 applies (for further information on open access see https://www.elsevier.com/openaccessoptions). Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at https://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the open access form that is emailed to them once the mansucript is received by Elsevier. Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author. More information can be found here: https://www.elsevier.com/copyright.
Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.
Articles published under the OA option will be subject to the following user license:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Please address any inquiries to our editorial office: