Starting in 2003, the History Committee began conducting interviews from luminaries in the Radiation Oncology field as a way of collecting society and field history. Below are the interviews.
An Interview with John Archambeau, MD
John Archambeau, MD, was born in Maine and attended the Maine Maritime Academy and served as a Merchant Marine Officer and then served in the Navy. In 1945, Dr. Archambeau went to college in San Francisco and graduated from Stanford University then went to Stanford Medical School. After graduating from medical school, he received a job at the University of Colorado as a pathologist but then decided to take a residency in Seattle in radiation medicine at the Seattle Tumor Institute. Dr. Archambeau is currently a radiation oncologist in Loma Linda, California and is affiliated with Loma Linda University Medical Center.
An Interview with Malcolm Bagshaw, MD, FASTRO
Malcolm Bagshaw, MD, FASTRO, was raised in Tecumseh, Michigan. He completed medical school at Yale University. Initially, he started a surgical residency and then moved back to Michigan to attend the therapeutic radiology program at University of Michigan under Isadore Lampe, MD. After residency, Dr. Bagshaw worked as a faculty member at Stanford University. He is also known for working with Varian to develop the first simulator, being the first radiation oncologist to implant gold markers for prostate localization and serving as chairman of Stanford’s radiation oncology department.
Carl Robert Bogardus
An interview with Carl Robert Bogardus, MD, FASTRO
Carl Bogardus, MD, FASTRO, was born in Hyden, Kentucky. His father was a general practitioner in this rural southeastern Kentucky town, and Dr. Bogardus often went with his father on house calls to assist him, even at an early age. After attending Hanover College and then medical school at the University of Louisville. While in medical school, he worked in the newly formed nuclear medicine department with Dr. Pat Cavanagh, who encouraged him to go into radiation therapy and helped him secure a residency at Penrose Cancer Hospital with Dr. Juan Del Regato. Residency was followed by a fellowship at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, where he worked with Drs. Bill Powers and Carlos Perez. His first faculty job was at the University of Oklahoma, where he worked with Dr. Sy Levitt. Dr. Bogardus later became president of ASTRO and later the ACR. He was instrumental in developing radiation oncology billing codes and dealing with the Relative Value System federal mandate.
An Interview with Luther Brady, MD, FASTRO
Luther Brady, MD, FASTRO, completed medical school at George Washington School of Medicine in Washington and obtained initial research experience at the National Cancer Institute. After an internship and beginning a residency in radiology at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, he became a resident in radiation oncology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Dr. Brady is best known for his leadership as chairman at Hahnermann Medical College where he helped to have the first linear accelerator in Philadelphia installed. He also served as president of the American Society for Radiation Oncology in 1971.
An Interview with Martin Brown, PhD, FASTRO
Martin Brown, PhD, FASTRO, grew up in Northern England in Yorkshire and attended Queen Elizabeth Grammar School. Dr. Brown then attended Birmingham University and got a degree in physics and then a masters degree in London for radiation biology and physics. From there, he got a PhD at Oxford University in the Department of Radiation Therapy. While at Oxford, Dr. Brown met Herman Suit, MD, FASTRO, and Bob Kallman, PhD, and received an offer from both of them to do a postdoc in Houston and Stanford. Dr. Brown chose to go to Stanford University. Dr. Brown was the Director of the Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology from 1984-2004 and is currently a Professor Emeritus of Radiation Oncology at Stanford University.
Joseph R. Castro
An Interview with Joseph R. Castro, MD
Joseph R. Castro, MD, is best known for his pioneering work with proton and heavy ion therapy. He attended undergraduate and medical school at Loyola University in Chicago and trained in radiology and radiation oncology in naval hospitals. He joined Gilbert Fletcher, MD, at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston for five years before joining UCSF. He treated over 1,000 patients with helium or heavier ions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, Calif. His research leadership laid the foundation for the subsequent development of particle therapy facilities throughout the world.
An Interview with Chu Chang, MD, FASTRO
Chu Huai Chang, MD, was born in the Fujian province of China in 1917, and he graduated from the St. John’s Medical School in Shanghai in 1944. He came to the United States on a Donner Foundation Fellowship in 1947. He initially served as a fellow in medicine and then later a fellow in radiology under the direction of Robert S. Stone, chairman of the department of radiology at the University of California. Dr. Chang then served as a radiology resident at the Jersey City Medical Center before joining the anatomy department as a fellow in 1950. He progressed through the ranks at Yale, as an instructor in 1951, an assistant professor in radiology in 1954. He moved to Columbia University in 1962 as associate professor in 1967, and he served as chief of radiotherapy at Columbia-Presbyterian.
Florence C.H. Chu
An Interview with Florence C.H. Chu, MD, FASTRO
Florence C.H. Chu, MD, FASTRO, was born in Shanghai, China, and graduated medical school from the National College of Shanghai in 1942. Following internship and three years of radiology residency in Shanghai, Dr. Chu and her husband moved to the U.S. where she completed a radiology fellowship at the City Hospital of New York. She moved to Memorial Hospital in New York for a radiation therapy fellowship in 1949 and remained there for 38 years. Dr Chu became chairman of the radiation therapy department at Memorial Sloan Kettering in 1977, the first woman chairman of a radiation oncology department in the U.S. She was instrumental in the early development of electrons for radiation therapy and an early pioneer in breast cancer treatment.
C. Norman Coleman
An Interview with C. Norman Coleman, MD, FASTRO
C. Norman Coleman, MD, FASTRO, was born in Brooklyn, New York and attended the University of Vermont. Dr. Coleman majored in math and minored in biology and chemistry. He then went to Yale Medical School. After medical school, Dr. Coleman completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of California in San Francisco, medical oncology at NCI and radiation oncology at Stanford. Dr. Coleman joined Harvard Medical School in 1985 as Fuller-American Cancer Society Professor and Chairman. He then served as chief of Radiation Oncology Branch at NCI. Dr. Coleman currently is the Senior Medical Advisor and medical chief of the CBRNE Team in the Office of Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), DHHS.
An Interview with James Cox, MD, FASTRO
Jim Cox, MD, FASTRO, grew up in Dayton, Ohio, and obtained his undergraduate degree from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, and medical degree at the University of Rochester. While in medical school, Dr. Cox became very interested in cancer, and this led him to interrupt his medical school education to spend a year at Penrose Cancer Center with Dr. Juan del Regato and later on to return to this institution for radiotherapy training. Dr. Cox also trained at the Institute Gustave-Roussy in Paris with Drs. Tubiana and Pierquin, among others. After completing his training and fulfilling his military obligation, Dr. Cox held staff and directorship positions at several academic institutions including Georgetown, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Columbia University before becoming physician-in-chief at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in 1988. Subsequently he was appointed division head and chairman of the department of radiation oncology, a post he held until he relinquished his administrative responsibilities while continuing to be very engaged in his academic, research and clinical activities.
An Interview with Bernard Cummings, MB, ChB, FASTRO
Bernard Cummings, MB, ChB, FASTRO, was born in New Zealand and attended the University of Otago Medical School. Dr. Cummings then went to Princess Margaret Hospital for his fellowship. He then went on to become the professor and chair of the department of radiation oncology at the University of Toronto. In 2011, Dr. Cummings received the highest honor bestowed on ASTRO’s members, the Gold Medal, for his outstanding contributions to the field of radiation oncology.
An Interview with Giulio D'Angio, MD
Dr. D’Angio was born in Brooklyn, NY, attended Columbia University for his undergraduate studies and Harvard University for his medical degree. He served with the U.S. Army Corps in Japan and upon discharge from the Army he spent time in Florence, Italy, studying art and history. Though he considered becoming a pediatric surgeon, he trained in radiology at Boston City Hospital after he totally devoted his career to pediatric oncology. He observed the enhanced effects of the combination of radiotherapy and actinomycin D in Wilms tumors in children and pursued these studies with passion. He founded the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTS). Dr. D’Angio has been a prolific clinical investigator and has published extensively on the outcome and long-term ill effects of multimodality treatment of children with cancer. He has also occupied important administrative positions in radiation oncology.
An Interview with Lawrence Davis, MD, MBA, FASTRO
Lawrence Davis, MD, MBA, FASTRO, was born in a suburb of Pittsburgh, North Braddock, Pennsylvania. Dr. Davis received a senatorial scholarship and attended Juniata College. He doubled majored in biology and chemistry and then went on to go to medical school at Georgetown University. Dr. Davis became interested in radiology while in medical school and then started a residency program at Thomas Jefferson University. From there, he joined the Armed Forces Radiobiology Institute (AFRI) where Dr. Davis worked on research projects with radiology. He then was offered a position at the University of Pennsylvania but moved over to Thomas Jefferson University.
Dr. Davis was then offered the chair position at Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He became the president and chair the American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), American Radium Society (ARS) and received the Gold Medal from the American College of Radiology (ACR) for his contributions over the past 40 years. He retired from Emory University in 2011 after serving as chair and Professor Emeritus of the Department of Radiation Oncology.
An Interview Luis Delclos, MD, DMSc, FASTRO
Luis Delclos, MD, DMSc, FASTRO, was born in 1926 in Tarragona, Spain. He is the son and the father of radiation therapists. He trained at the Christie in Manchester with Dr. Ralston Paterson from 1954-1957. In 1960, he came to work with G.H. Fletcher at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston where he retired in 1996. He was internationally known for his work in brachytherapy and with the Fletcher-Suit-Delclos GYN applicators. He was an early advocate of prostate implants with gold seeds. Through 1998, he has written over 150 publications, abstracts, books and chapters and was a key contributor to the three G.H. Fletcher texts.
An Interview with William Dewey, PhD, FASTRO
William Dewey, PhD, FASTRO, both a vital contributor to the field of radiation oncology, as well as an influential member of the Society, was born in Omaha, Nebraska. He received a BS degree in physics at the University of Washington and then served in the Navy. While in the Navy, Dr. Dewey worked as an ABC Officer – atomic/biological/chemical warfare officer. From there, he became interested in radiation and went to graduate school at the University of Rochester. Dr. Dewey then worked as a physicist at MD Anderson Cancer Center and then went on to work as a professor of radiation biology at Colorado State University. From there, he worked at the University of California, San Francisco until he retired in 2004. In 1998, Dr. Dewey received the highest honor bestowed on ASTRO’s members, the Gold Medal, for his outstanding contributions to the field of radiation oncology.
An Interview with Mark Dewhirst, DVM, PhD, FASTRO
When Mark was born the Manhattan, Kansas, his father was a graduate student in the agriculture school of the University of Kansas and later joined the faculty of the College of Agriculture of the University of Arizona, in Tucson. Mark followed his father’s footsteps. After undergrad in Tucson, he went to Colorado State University for his veterinary and PhD degrees. His academic career began in the radiology department of the University of Arizona with a joint appointment in the veterinary science department. In August of 1984, he joined the Duke radiation oncology department with joint appointments in biomedical engineering, pathology and the department of anatomy physiological sciences and radiology of the school of veterinary medicine at NC State, positions he holds to this day. Currently he is also associate dean for faculty mentoring at Duke. Mark’s research interests have centered on the use of hyperthermia as an adjuvant to radiation therapy, tumor and normal tissue oxygenation, tumor and normal tissue angiogenesis, drug transport and functional imaging among others. His contributions to the scientific literature, in the form of journal articles, editorials, invited articles and book chapters are many and widely quoted. He has also served on the editorial board of prestigious journals. Mark has been a sought after speaker for society meetings and to many institutions worldwide. Mark also has served with distinction and occupied elected offices in several societies such as ASTRO, The North American Hyperthermia Society, the Radiation Research Society. He is the recipient of the ASTRO Gold Medal, The Failla Award from the Radiation Research Society, The Eugene Robinson Award from the Society for Thermal Medicine and The BSD Award.
Ketayun A. Dinshaw
An Interview with Ketayun A. Dinshaw, MB
Ketayun Ardeshir Dinshaw (affectionately called Katy by those who knew her well) was born on November 16, 1943 in Calcutta, India. She graduated with an MB and BS degree from the Christian, Medical College in Vellore and was awarded the D.M.R. T and F.R.C.R. degrees after working at Addenbrooke hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
She joined Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India in May 1974 and in 1981, was appointed chair of the new department of radiation oncology. With tact and determination, she modernized the department. She instituted a residency program in radiation oncology, headed a radiation oncology in-patient service established multidisciplinary clinics, took charge of the brachytherapy service, and introduced afterloading techniques using iridium, manufactured at her urging by the Bhabha Atomic Research Center. She also initiated India’s first bone marrow transplantation program. Dr. Dinshaw set up ethics and scientific committees to advocate for the patients and enhance the quality of both patient care and research. In 1995, Katy was appointed director of the Tata Memorial Center and served in this position for 13 years until her retirement in 2008.
As a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency, she worked tirelessly to bring Tata Hospital to a position of international recognition. She also served as a consultant for the UICC and the WHO and is a member of the Roll of Honor of these organizations. The government of India awarded her the Padma Shri in 2001. Katy lost her battle with cancer on August 26, 2011.
An Interview with Scotte Doggett, MD, FASTRO
R.L. Scotte Doggett, MD, FASTRO, was born in San Diego on October 21, 1931. His father was a real estate salesman and his mother an RN. He went to grammar school in San Diego. At age 9,he began learning to play the trumpet after a door-to-door salesman sold his mother a trumpet. Music and the trumpet became an important part of his life. He later became an expert on the banjo, as well, and toured with the Horace Heidt show. He was offered a long-term position with them but turned it down to enter Stanford and then Stanford Medical School, where he worked his way through playing in bars. He graduated with honors and went on to internship on the Harvard Service at Boston General Hospital. After serving in the Air Force, he went on to Cornell and MSKCC, where he trained in radiology but became totally involved in radiotherapy. He then went as a fellow to Stanford to train under Henry Kaplan and Malcolm Bagshaw. He participated in research in head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer and ran the regional medical program. He was then attracted to Sacramento, Calif., to the Radiologic Associates practice where he took over the therapy portion and developed it into the finest community practice program in the country. The program also became a major contributor to RTOG. Later Dr. Doggett became chief of the radiation oncology program at UC Davis and led it to departmental status.
An Interview with Sarah Donaldson, MD, FASTRO
Sarah Donaldson, MD, FASTRO, was raised in Portland, Ore. She completed medical training at Dartmouth and Harvard and a residency in radiation oncology at Stanford. There, she eventually initiated the pediatric radiation oncology service, set up the clinical cancer center and established a clinical trials office and an outreach program. Dr. Donaldson revolutionized the treatment of pediatric lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas and initiated combination chemotherapy with low-dose radiation. She was the first woman to be president of ASTRO and of the American Board of Radiology. Dr. Donaldson has been awarded the Gold Medal from the American College of Radiology, the ASTRO Gold Medal and the Janeway Medal from the American Radium Society.
John F. Fowler
Lillian Mary Fuller
An Interview with Lillian Mary Fuller, MD
Lillian Mary Fuller, MD, was born in Stratford, Ontario, Canada. Her life has been successful and is a reflection of her exceptional talent. She aimed for, and reached, the top. When she decided to go to medical school in 1942, there were very few women physicians in the United States or Canada. Prior to her arrival at MD Anderson Cancer Center in 1956, she completed a residency at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, N.Y., an ACS fellowship at the Radium Institute in Liverpool and a fellowship at the Memorial Hospital in New York. England included the Christie, Royal Marsden and Hammersmith departments of radiation oncology. At MD Anderson she attained the title of professor of radiation oncology and was the deputy chairman of the department for several years. Lillian Fuller co-authored the book “Hodgkin’s Disease and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Adults and Children.” Her treatment fields were the first comprehensive manual. She remains active, more so in her retired physicians organization.
An Interview with Eli Glatstein, MD, FASTRO
Dr. Eli Glatstein was born and raised in Muscatine, a small Iowa town where his father owned a furniture store. After completing his undergraduate studies at the University of Iowa, he went to medical school at Stanford where he came in contact with Henry Kaplan and Malcom Bagshaw who influenced him on his specialty choice and professional career.
After he completed his residency at Stanford, he spent two years at Hammersmith Hospital and the Gray Laboratory in England, doing research and then fulfilled his military obligation in South Vietnam before returning to Stanford as a member of the faculty. In 1979, he became chief of the radiation oncology branch of the division of cancer treatment at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). From 1992 to 1996, he headed the department of radiation oncology at the University of Texas in Dallas. In 1996, he became vice-chairman and clinical director of the department of radiation oncology at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center in Philadelphia, the position he currently holds.
An Interview with Frances Glica
Frances Glica was born in Philadelphia and attended Chestnut Hill College where she earned a B.A. in English. In 1977, Mrs. Glica began working for the American College of Radiology as secretary to Dr. John Curry. During her time at ACR, she began working with ASTRO on a number of projects. ASTRO, named ASTR at the time, had not yet been officially formalized. Mrs. Glica became deeply involved within the society as it grew in size and prestige. In 1998, Mrs. Glica became an Honorary Member, the highest honor ASTRO bestows on distinguished cancer researchers, scientists and leaders in disciplines other than radiation oncology, radiobiology or radiation physics
An Interview with Bruce Haffty, MD, FASTRO
Bruce Haffty, MD, was born and raised in Worcester, MA, 40 miles west of Boston. After completing undergraduate education, he matriculated at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, following which he pursued a master’s degree in biomedical engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). A requirement of his WPI graduate studies included a research project, which he pursued in the cardiology department of St. Vincent Hospital in Worcester, one of the University of Massachusetts Medical School teaching hospitals. Work with the St. Vincent cardiologists motivated him to pursue medical education at Yale School of Medicine, where he initially intended to pursue a career in cardiology, but a rotation in the Yale department of radiation oncology changed his career path and future. He remained at Yale for his radiation oncology training, under long-time chair, James Fischer. Following completion of training in 1988 he joined the Yale faculty and remained through 2005. During those years at Yale, a collaborative and innovative group of oncologic surgeons and radiation oncologists were breaking ground in breast conservation therapy indications and techniques. His participation in this work led to his interest in breast cancer management that would become a career focus. In 2005, he joined the Cancer Institute of New Jersey (now Rutgers Cancer Institute) and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School as professor and chair of radiation oncology, a position he still holds. In addition to significant research and clinical contributions, Dr. Haffty’s extraordinary career has included service as president and board chair of ASTRO and the American Radium Society, and service on the governing boards of ASCO and the RSNA, as well as leadership posts in other scientific organizations.
An Interview with Eric Hall, DSc, FASTRO
Dr. Eric Hall obtained his undergraduate degree in physics at University College of London with the intention of pursuing work in high-energy physics, but, for practical reasons, switched to medical physics and went to work at the Churchill Hospital in Oxford where Dr. Frank Ellis was the medical director. He was encouraged to do radiobiology research, so he returned to school at Oxford University where he obtained a doctorate and then accepted a full time research position at Columbia University in New York where he has remained since. In addition to his research contribution to radiation biology, Dr. Hall is admired for his contributions to the teaching of radiobiology to medical students, radiation oncology residents and practicing physicians. For nearly 30 years, Dr. Hall taught a Radiation Biology Refresher Course at the annual ASTRO meetings that was immensely popular. His course was always oversubscribed. He presented radiobiological concepts with clarity and unique humor. Dr. Hall has made many very significant contributions to the scientific literature including three books. In this respect perhaps he is best known for Radiobiology for the Radiologist, one of the most informative, well illustrated and accessible books on the subject. Dr. Hall has now introduced radiobiology teaching on line. Dr. Hall has had enormous impact on the understanding of the basis of radiation therapy.
Gerald E. Hanks
An Interview with Gerald E. Hanks, MD
Dr. Hanks grew up in Washington State and attended Washington State University. He obtained his medical degree at Washington University in St. Louis, interned at Yale University and trained in radiation therapy at Stanford Medical Center. He was the first trainee in radiation oncology in a training program headed by Dr. Henry Kaplan and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. After several years in academic medicine, he spent 14 years in private practice in Sacramento, Calif. While in Sacramento he was very active in clinical research with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the Patterns of Care Studies (PCS) established by Dr. Simon Kramer. Dr. Hanks was very active and influential in the development of ASTRO. Dr. Hanks returned to full-time academic practice when he became the head of the radiation oncology department at Fox Chase Cancer Center where he remained until his retirement from active practice.
An Interview with Jay Harris, MD, FASTRO
Jay Harris, MD, FASTRO, grew up in a working-class neighborhood in New Jersey, participated in a program at Cornell after his junior year of high school and then went to medical school at Stanford. While at Stanford, Dr. Harris also earned a master's degree in statistics. From there, he applied to radiology residency program at Duke University but then got drafted. After two years in the army, Dr. Harris started a residency at the Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. He became interested in breast cancer and breast conservation therapy and has worked on a number of clinical trials in that area. In 1977, Dr. Harris began working at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute where he became the chair for the Department of Radiation Oncology.
Dr. Harris also has made many contributions to ASTRO. He was the ASTRO President from 1994-1995. He worked with Dr. Steve Leibel to have ASTRO take over the socioeconomic aspects of the field of radiation oncology. ASTRO went from being primarily educational and academic to needing to represent the entirety of the specialty. Dr. Harris has stepped down from chair but continues to work full-time at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
An Interview with Samuel Hellman, MD, FASTRO
Samuel Hellman, MD, FASTRO, was born in Bronx, N.Y. He received his bachelor's from Allegheny College and MD from SUNY Upstate. His did a medical internship at the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston and his residency was at Yale with Morton Kligerman. He did clinical and research fellowships at the Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden Hospital. He returned to Yale as an assistant professor. Two years later he moved to Boston as the founding chairman of the Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. While in Boston he made seminal contributions to the conservative management of breast cancer, multi-modality treatment of Hodgkin's disease, and the understanding of the bone marrow stem cell compartment. He moved to New York where he was physician-in-chief of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer. He recruited Zvi Fuks, Steven Liebel and Clif Ling to that institution, strengthening radiation oncology and helping provide the intellectual and physical resources for the development of 3-D conformal therapy and IMRT. He then moved to the University of Chicago where he was dean of the School of Medicine and professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology. In Chicago, Sam and his daughter Debbie, a professor of law, wrote a highly quoted paper on the ethics of randomized clinical trials. Also in Chicago, professor Hellman ariculated the Spectrum Hypothesis that posited a continuum between the Halstedian model of orderly cancer spread from the primary to lymph nodes, and then to the systemic circulation and the Fisherian model of early dissemination to the systemic circulation. The Spectrum Hypothesis has stimulated research on the ability of ablative radiation to alter the natural history of oligometastatic cancer.
An Interview with William Hendee, PhD
Dr. William Hendee, PhD, grew up outside of Jackson, Miss. He attended college at Tulane University, Millsaps College, Vanderbilt University and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School where he received his PhD in medical physics. After a time of teaching physics at Millsaps College, he moved to the University of Colorado. It was there that Dr. Hendee first made his major impact on the radiation oncology community when he authored “Medical Radiation Physics” followed by “Radiation Therapy Physics.” They are both now in their 5th editions and are required texts for generations of radiation oncology residents. Dr. Hendee became chairman of the radiology department at the University of Colorado then moved on to the American Medical Association (AMA) where he served at vice-president of science, technology and public health from 1985 - 1991. Dr. Hendee moved back to academia in 1991, joining the faculty of the Medical College of Wisconsin where he served for many years as dean of the graduate school. Dr. Hendee has been editor-in-chief of “Medical Physics” since 2005.
An Interview with Frank Hendrickson, MD, FASTRO
Frank Hendrickson was born in Springfield, Penn. His father was a physician, specializing in ENT and his mother was a homemaker and piano teacher. He was exposed to medicine at an early age since his father had a home office. In 1944, he enrolled in the V12 program of the Navy on an education path at Swarthmore College and attended his father’s alma mater, Jefferson Medical College. After graduation, he started his residency in radiology at Jefferson Medical College. This was interrupted by a two year assignment serving as a general medical officer aboard ship for the Navy. When returning to his residency, he met Ted Eberhard, the first director of radiation therapy at Jefferson Medical College. Dr. Eberhard introduced Dr. Hendrickson to his wife Joan, who worked as a technologist in radiation therapy, and Dr. Eberhard became his mentor in the field of therapeutic radiology. He completed his residency at the University of Pennsylvania due to turmoil in his department. He then went on to a fellowship with the American Cancer Society spending a year in Europe at various therapy centers. Upon his return, Dr. Hendrickson started his career in Chicago at Presbyterian Hospital, and later became the chairman of Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Centre and director of the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. He would go on to serve as ASTRO president in 1978 and study chairman for numerous RTOG trials.
An Interview with Richard Hill, PhD
Richard Hill, PhD, grew up outside of Reading, England. He attended Oxford University and completed an undergraduate degree in experimental physics. Professor Hill developed an interest in radiation and got a PhD in radiation biology at Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College in London. After he completed his PhD, he moved to Toronto, Ontario, Canada and began working at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Professor Hill has worked on a number of research studies and has published over 250 scientific papers.
David H. Hussey
An Interview with David H. Hussey, MD, FASTRO
An Interview with David H. Hussey, MD, FASTRO Question: The date is the 12 of June of 2012, and this is Chris Rose. Dave Larson and I will be interviewing Dave Hussey. For the record, Drs. Rose, Hussey and Larson were ASTRO presidents beginning in 1998, 1999 and 2000, respectively.
Morton M. Kligerman
An Interview with Morton M. Kligerman, MD
Morton “Klig” Kligerman, MD, was born in Philadelphia to Russian immigrant parents. He attended public schools in Philadelphia and Temple University for his undergraduate and graduate degrees. He began his training in diagnostic radiology at Temple, but his training was interrupted by his obligatory military service. Dr. Kligerman held academic appointments at various prestigious academic institutions such as Columbia, Yale and the University of Pennsylvania. His contributions to radiation oncology were very significant in the clinical area and basic research and the use of heavy particles. He also played a crucial role in the establishment of radiation oncology training programs under the auspices of the NCI. In addition to his contributions to radiation oncology he was a supporter of the arts. This earned him recognition in the communities where he lived.
An Interview with David Larson, MD, PhD, FASTRO
David Larson, MD, PhD, FASTRO, was born Astoria, Oregon and moved to El Cerrito, California when he was four years old. He attended UC Berkeley and majored in physics. In 1965, Dr. Larson went to Columbia for an astrophysics fellowship and then to the University of Chicago and earned a master's degree in particle physics at Argonne National Laboratory. He then did his PhD work at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a physics group from the National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa University and the University of Chicago. Dr. Larson attended medical school at the University of Miami School of Medicine and then completed his residency at the Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. After residency, Dr. Larson joined UCSF faculty and began his interest in radiosurgery.
An Interview with Theodore Lawrence, MD, PhD, FASTRO
Theodore Lawrence, MD, PhD, FASTRO was born in Queens, New York and attended the Rockefeller University and Cornell University as part of an MD-PhD program. He then went on to complete an internal medicine residency at Stanford University. Dr. Lawrence is currently the Isadore Lampe professor and chair of the department of radiation oncology at the University of Michigan. In 2009, he received the highest honor bestowed on ASTRO’s members, the Gold Medal, for his outstanding contributions to the field of radiation oncology.
An Interview with Seymour Levitt, MD, DSc, FASTRO
Seymour H. Levitt, MD, DSc, FASTRO, was born in Chicago where he spent his early years. He attended The University of Colorado where he graduated cum laude with a B.S. degree in 1950, and an MD degree in 1954. He was elected to phi beta kappa during his undergraduate years and an alpha omega alpha during medical school. After a one year internship at Philadelphia General Hospital, he spent two years in the army where he was stationed in Stuttgart, Germany. When he returned from the army, he completed an internal medicine residency and a radiology residency, both at the University of California in San Francisco (UCSF). After this he spent one year at the University of Michigan as an instructor and one year at the University of Rochester as an assistant radiotherapist.
He was then appointed associate professor and chief of the division of radiation therapy at the University of Oklahoma Medical Center. In 1966, he moved to the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Va., to serve as chairman of the division of radiotherapy and oncology and professor of radiology. In 1970, he moved to Minneapolis to begin what is now over a 30 year relationship with the University of Minnesota as chairman of the department of therapeutic radiology.
An Interview with Robert Lindberg, MD
Robert Lindberg, MD, was born in 1932 in Los Angeles where his father was a radiation therapist at the Los Angeles Tumor Institute. After medical school at Northwestern, Dr. Lindberg did a straight radiation oncology residency with Juan del Regato, MD, at Penrose Cancer Hospital in Colorado Springs, Colo. He then went to MD Anderson Cancer Center for a fellowship in 1963 and became a senior staff member under Gilbert Fletcher, MD. Dr. Lindberg is known for his concept of lymph node mapping, sarcoma treatment and the early hyperoxygen trials. From 1984-1995, he was chairman of radiation oncology at the University of Louisville. He then retired in Houston.
C. Clifton Ling
An Interview with Carl Mansfield, MD, ScD, FASTRO
Dr. Carl Mansfield began his medical career at Howard University in 1952. His postgraduate training began in diagnostic radiology, but his path changed with a rotation in radiation therapy with Dr. Simon Kramer at Jefferson University, where he saw cancer patients who were “alive and well five and ten years after treatment” which sold him on radiation oncology. He spent a year with Dr. Kramer in radiation therapy, another year in radiation oncology in England, then returned to Jefferson for two more years of training in pediatric radiation oncology. He served on faculty at Jefferson, took a chairmanship at the University of Kansas, then returned to Jefferson as chairman on Dr. Kramer’s retirement. Later he retired, but returned to active practice to head the radiation oncology division of the NCI, and, afterwards, to serve as chairman of the University of Maryland. His career has seen many changes—the technology evolution from orthovoltage to cobalt to linear accelerators and ultimately intensity modulated radiation therapy; the diagnostic evolution from clinical evaluations based on physical findings to reliance on diagnostic imaging with CT, MR, and PET; the evolution in cancer therapy decision making from solo surgeons or radiation oncologists doctors to the oncology team approach with collaborating medical and surgical oncologists; the evolution in our understanding of cancer origins and controls brought by radiation and molecular biology. Through his career, he has contributed to all aspects of radiation oncology as a mentor for the training of many physicians and physicists in radiation oncology, an innovator in brachytherapy and IMRT, a leader in breast cancer and lymphoma research both within his institutions and through cooperative group efforts. He has broken minority barriers in radiation oncology and been honored by the American Cancer Society for his longstanding efforts, particularly in the area of access and education for African American cancer patients.
An Interview with Rodney Million, MD, FASTRO
Dr. Rodney Million, MD, FASTRO, a native of Idaville, Ind., obtained his undergraduate and graduate degrees at Indiana University in Bloomington, Ind. After a year of internship at Harbor General Hospital in Torrance, Calif., and three years in the U.S. Air Force, he began a general radiology residency at Indiana University Medical Center. During that time, he became interested in radiation therapy. This led him to pursue further training at the MD Anderson Hospital in Houston with Dr. Gilbert Fletcher, MD. In 1962, he returned to Indiana University Medical Center to head the radiotherapy section. Two years later, he became director of the radiotherapy division of the radiology department at The University of Florida in Gainesville, Fla., and ultimately chair of the department, a position he retained until 1992 when he became Professor Emeritus.
Dr. Million established a radiation oncology center of excellence highly regarded for the work in head and neck, breast and gynecological tumors and lymphomas. His collaboration with surgical colleagues, particularly the head and neck surgeons, resulted in the establishment of multidisciplinary clinics that defined the best standards of care for these patients, His contributions to the literature attest to the excellence and success of the multidisciplinary approach prevalent at his institution. Dr. Million also established one of the best training programs in radiation oncology. Though Dr. Million is no longer active, the multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients and the resident training principles that he established at his institution remain essentially intact.
An Interview with Eleanor Montague, MD
Eleanor Montague, MD, and her parents emigrated from Italy to Pennsylvania prior to World War II. She graduated from the University of Alabama and the Women’s Medical School of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. She interned at Kings County in Brooklyn, and her radiation oncology residency was with Morton Kligerman at Columbia. Dr. Montague did diagnostic radiology in Japan while her husband served there. Later they both joined the MD Anderson staff. Working with G.H. Fletcher, Dr. Montague became an international authority on the treatment of breast cancer
An Interview with William Moss, MD
William Moss, MD, FASTRO, completed medical school at Washington University in St. Louis. As a senior medical student he rotated on an elective to the Missouri State Cancer Hospital in Columbia, Mo., where he met Juan del Regato, MD. He initially had a residency at Ellis Fischel State Cancer Hospital in Columbia in straight surgery. He joined the Army Air Force thereafter and was stationed in Guam for two years. After he completed his military service, Dr. del Regato offered him a residency in radiation oncology. He was also encouraged by Dr. del Regato to sharpen his experience through a fellowship with Dr. Paterson in Manchester, United Kingdom, and with Dr. Baclesse in Paris, France. In addition to his many publications in the field of radiation oncology, he also authored a radiation oncology textbook titled Moss’ Radiation Oncology, which was an important reference to many residents and radiation oncologists. Dr. Moss was a leader in defining and developing the economics of radiation oncology.
An Interview with Stanley Order, MD, FASTRO
Dr. Stanley Order, ASTRO past-president, was born in Vienna, Austria, where his parents had migrated from Germany. His father attended medical school at the University of Vienna. The family came to the US and settled in Philadelphia where Stanley’s father practiced medicine and where Stanley and his sister Sucha, also a physician and radiation oncologist, grew up. Stanley attended Albright College and Tufts Medical School. He began training in pathology at the Brigham Hospital in Boston but was inspired by Dr. Luther Brady to pursue training in radiation oncology. After fulfilling his military obligation he went to Yale for radiation oncology training in the department headed by Dr. Kligerman.
While a radiation oncology resident, Stanley developed his life long research interest in immunology under the guidance of Dr. Byron Waksman. Stanley began his faculty academic career at Yale, but, in 1971, he went to the Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy headed by Sam Hellman. In 1975 he became the chairman of the newly created department of radiation oncology at Johns Hopkins, where he continued his work with radiolabelled antibodies for hepatomas and other tumors. In 1991, he became head of the Institute for Systemic Therapy of Cooper Hospital University Medical Center in Camden, New Jersey, where he finished his active academic and clinical career.
An Interview with Robert Parker, MD
Robert G. Parker, MD, was a major clinician, teacher and investigator of radiation oncology. He began his education at the University of Michigan and received his MD degree from the University of Nebraska. He interned at the University of Nebraska and completed a pathology residency at Western Reserve University. Following this, he completed a residency in radiology at the University of Michigan. During this time, he was exposed to an outstanding radiation therapy program led by one of the early giants in the field, Isadore Lampe, a physician who trained many of this nation’s academics in radiation oncologists. He served in the military from 1943 to 1945 and again from 1950 to 1952 when his residency was interrupted by the Korean War. He returned to Michigan after his service and completed his residency training.
After he completed his residency, he went on to receive additional training in radiotherapy at the Seattle Tumor Institute where he learned from two more of the early giants in the field, Drs. Simeon Cantril and Franz Buschke.
Dr. Parker was director of therapeutic radiology at the University Of Washington School of Medicine from 1958 to 1978. There he developed an innovative training program in radiation oncology. During this time he initiated one of the nation’s first programs, evaluating the usefulness of fast neutron therapy for locally advanced cancers. In 1977, Dr. Parker was recruited to the University of California in Los Angeles as professor of radiologic sciences. He later became founding chairman of the department of radiation oncology at that institution, a position he held until 1994 when he stepped down as chairman. He continued to have an active clinical practice, teaching residents and medical students and conducting research. One of his major accomplishments at UCLA was the installation of a hospital-based neutron therapy facility at Wadsworth Hospital.
Lester J. Peters
An Interview with Lester J. Peters, MD, FASTRO
Professor Lester J. Peters, MD, FASTRO, is described as a man of vision, wisdom, integrity and stature. From humble beginnings in rural Australia, professor Peters rose to become a pre-eminent radiation oncologist with international influence. His impressive leadership and career achievements in the United States of America include chair of the department of radiation oncology at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (1982-1995) and President of ASTRO (1993–1994), and culminated in the coveted ASTRO Gold Medal (awarded in 2003). In 1995, professor Peters returned to Australia where his career continued to evolve: he is well recognized as the “guiding light” of the Australasian radiation oncology community, and has been instrumental in invigorating collaborative research within the region. Professor Peters has gained the respect of radiation oncologists internationally for his tremendous wealth of clinical experience and his passion for research in radiobiology and cancers of the head and neck.
An Interview with Theodore Phillips, MD
Theodore Phillips, MD, studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and trained in therapeutic radiology at the University of California at San Francisco. His career began during the transition to megavoltage, and he witnessed the introduction of complex field shaping, the simulator, computerized treatment planning, CT imaging and clinical trials. Among the advances at UCSF during his tenure were chemomodulation, radiosurgery, isotopic immunotherapy and conformal radiotherapy. Experiences that enhanced his career included an NCI research fellowship in pathology, a year of general radiology training and two years of radiobiology research while in the Navy.
An Interview with James Purdy, PhD, FASTRO
James Purdy grew up in southeast Texas enjoying sports, hunting and fishing. Initially studying engineering/pre-med at the University of Texas (UT), he was uncertain as to which career choice to pursue and decided to enlist in the Marine Corps. Upon discharge, he enrolled at Lamar University in Beaumont, Texas, earning his BS degree in physics; graduate studies followed at UT where he received his MS degree in nuclear physics and then pursued a PhD in biophysics at the UT Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. He soon realized he missed the math and hard science that nuclear physics provided and returned to UT to complete his PhD studies in experimental nuclear physics. This was followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in medical physics at the University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center (where he recently received the 2013 Distinguished Alumnus Award). Upon completing his post-doctoral training, he joined the Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) radiation oncology faculty where he served for over 31 years, assembling one of the strongest medical physics groups in the country. In 2004, he and his wife, Marilyn moved to Davis, California to be closer to their family, and where he served as professor and vice-chair of the department of radiation oncology at the University of California Davis (UCD). Currently he holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at both WUSTL and UCD. He has mentored numerous physician/physics residents and junior faculty. He established the first CAMPEP-accredited Radiation Oncology Physics Residency program. Dr. Purdy has received the 2000 ASTRO Gold Medal, 2002 ACR Gold Medal, the 1996 ACMP Marvin M.D. Williams Award and the 1997 AAPM William D. Coolidge Award. His ardent enthusiasm and dedication to his chosen career field have not only left a lasting impression upon medical physics and radiation oncology, but also upon his colleagues, trainees and friends.
An Interview with Marvin Rotman, MD
Dr. Rotman, a native of Philadelphia, attended Jefferson Medical College. He wanted to be an internist and began his training at the Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. While in training, he voluntarily joined the Air Force and then he became interested in cancer and clinical research and pursued training in radiology at Montefiore Hospital in New York under the guidance of Dr. Richard Botstein. His interest in gynecological oncology led him to well known radiotherapy centers in Europe and to a close professional relationship with Dr. Gilbert Fletcher. Dr. Rotman played an important role in the work of co-operative groups like GOG and RTOG. His clinical research interests include combined chemotherapy and radiation for solid tumors, gynecological oncology and the use of brachytherapy for choroidal melanomas among others. Dr. Rotman is an active member and chair of the SUNY Downstate Medical Center radiation oncology department.
An Interview with Robert Sagerman, MD, FASTRO
Robert Sagerman, MD, FASTRO, was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. His father was a family practitioner, which inspired him to pursue a career in medicine. He attended New York City schools and went to New York University for his undergraduate education. Following his military obligation, he trained in general radiology at the Charity Hospital in New Orleans and joined the staff at Montefiore Hospital in New York. Subsequently he pursued research at Stanford University with Henry Kaplan, MD, and then returned to New York for a position at Columbia University, where he became one of the leaders of pediatric radiation oncology. In 1968, Dr. Sagerman became the chief of radiation oncology at the State University of New York in Syracuse. He remained in this position until 1994 when he stepped down but remained on the faculty and continued to contribute in a very significant way to the care of patients, to research, to education and to our specialty.
An Interview with Herman Suit, MD
Dr. Suit obtained his undergraduate and medical degrees at The University of Houston and Baylor Medical School. While in medical school he became interested in nuclear physics and radiation biology. He was intrigued by the fact that with radiation tumors could be eradicated. He decided to pursue advanced training in radiation therapy and biology. After medical school, Dr. Suit obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree at Oxford University. He pursued further training at the National Institutes of Health before joining the faculty at The MD Anderson Cancer in Houston. In 1970, Dr. Suit became chair of the department of radiation medicine of Harvard University in Boston where he remains. Dr. Suit has made many contributions to radiation oncology. In the clinical area, he has advanced our understanding of the management of sarcomas and gastrointestinal tumors. In radiation biology, he has had a major role in improving our understanding of oxygenation and fractionation. He has also trained many outstanding radiation oncologists that have gone on to advance our specialty in very significant ways. He played a major role in the development of proton therapy. He was very influential in the development of ASTRO as a separate and independent society that allowed it to become what it is today, the most respected, influential and the largest radiation oncology society in the world.
An Interview with Joel Tepper, MD, FASTRO
Dr. Joel Tepper grew up in the New York and Boston areas. After finishing high school he obtained his undergraduate degree at MIT. At the time he was interested in physics and mathematics but subsequently he decided to pursue a career in medicine and attended Washington University School of Medicine. In medical school he learned of the possibilities of the developing specialty of radiation oncology and went to train in the newly established Radiation Medicine Department at MGH headed by Dr. Herman Suit. After completing his training Joel went to Andrews Air Force in D.C. to fulfill his military obligation. While in D.C. he got to know Dr. Eli Glatstein, head of Radiation Oncology at the NCI. Joel joined Eli’s department and this further fermented his interest in research. Later on he returned to MGH to be in charge of the GI service where he remained until he became chair of the Radiation Oncology Department at UNC. In a short period of time Joel raised the academic and clinical standards of the department to the very prominent position that it enjoys now. He became an integral part of the UNC Cancer Program and contributed significantly to the success of the UNC Cancer Center. Joel is now Chairman Emeritus at UNC. Joel has maintained a strong commitment and identification with our specialty, the care of cancer patients and ASTRO. He has been a member of several ASTRO committees. As such he has played a very important role in the ASTRO policies and decisions. Joel is a former ASTRO President and recipient of the ASTRO Gold Medal. He has received many honors and distinctions. His contributions to care of patients, teaching, research and the scientific literature are vast and significant yet he maintains an unassuming profile.
Carl von Essen
An Interview with Carl von Essen
Carl von Essen, MD, was born in Tokyo, Japan, where his father was a Swedish diplomat. Subsequently his father was transferred to San Francisco were the family settled. Dr. von Essen obtained his undergraduate degree from the University of California at Berkeley and his medical school degree from Stanford University. He went to The University of Chicago Clinics to do his internship and subsequently to the Michael Reese Hospital for training in radiation oncology. He was drafted during the Korean War and following this he did a research fellowship at Stanford with Dr. Henry Kaplan. Later on Carl served on the faculty at several prestigious institutions. He was very involved with research and the clinical application of the combination of chemotherapy and radiation, the use of heavy particles and other innovative treatments. Carl also traveled and worked in different countries all over the world. He worked very hard and under very difficult circumstances to improve the standards of cancer care and in particular of radiation oncology.
J. Frank Wilson
An Interview with J. Frank Wilson, MD, FASTRO
J. Frank Wilson, MD, FASTRO, is the Emeritus Chairman and Bernard & Miriam Peck Family Professor of Radiation Oncology (1986-2017) and Director Emeritus of the Medical College of Wisconsin Cancer Center (1994-2000). Dr. Wilson is past President of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (1993). He was a 2003 recipient of the ASTRO Gold Medal. Dr. Wilson also served as a Chancellor and Vice President of the American College of Radiology (ACR), and as President of the American Radium Society. He received the ACR Gold Medal in 2006. In 2013, Dr. Wilson also received the Gold Medal of the Radiological Society of North America recognizing his groundbreaking contributions to breast cancer research and treatment. Dr. Wilson was made an Honorary Alumni of the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) and received the MCW Distinguished Award in 2011. He was recipient of the Distinguished Achievement Award of Milwaukee Academy of Medicine in 2012. For his volunteer service to the American Cancer Society, Dr. Wilson has received the St. George Award of the Society. In 2013, he received the MCW Presidents Diversity Award. For over 15 years, Dr. Wilson led diverse teams of investigators at the state and national levels, including the ACR Patterns of Care Study, in federally funded evaluations of the adequacy and quality of radiation oncology and cancer care. As an authority in breast and skin cancer and he has published over 200 papers and abstracts, 21 books or chapters and has presented many lectures, both nationally and internationally. In retirement, Dr. Wilson currently teaches in the Medical Humanities Department of the Medical College of Wisconsin.